Reserved and Special Characters


The following is a list of reserved and special characters which can be included in HTML documents by using a numeric reference code or an entity name. As will probably be clear, the numeric code is more likely to produce the desired result than the entity name reference.

To include any of the characters listed below in your pages, simply insert the correct code at the place where you want the character to appear in your text. For example, to display an e with an acute accent the HTML should be:

             é or é
which would display as:
             é
In the table below, for each character description a numeric code and entity name has been provided. Beside the = sign for each code/name you should see the actual character which was described. If the code or name is not supported by your particular browser, you will probably just see the same code/name on both sides of the = sign.

Reserved Characters

Description Numeric Code Entity name
quotation mark " = " " = "
ampersand & = & & = &
less-than sign &#60; = < &lt; = <
greater-than sign &#62; = > &gt; = >

Special Characters

Description Numeric Code Entity name
non-breaking space &#160; =   &nbsp; =  
inverted exclamation mark &#161; = ¡ &iexcl; = ¡
cent sign &#162; = ¢ &cent; = ¢
pound sign &#163; = £ &pound; = £
currency sign &#164; = ¤ &curren; = ¤
yen sign &#165; = ¥ &yen; = ¥
broken vertical bar &#166; = ¦ &brvbar; = ¦
section sign &#167; = § &sect; = §
spacing diaresis &#168; = ¨ &uml; = ¨
copyright sign &#169; = © &copy; = ©
feminine ordinal indicator &#170; = ª &ordf; = ª
angle quotation mark, left &#171; = « &laquo; = «
negation sign &#172; = ¬ &not; = ¬
soft hyphen &#173; = ­ &shy; = ­
circled R registered sign &#174; = ® &reg; = ®
spacing macron &#175; = ¯ &hibar; = &hibar;
degree sign &#176; = ° &deg; = °
plus-or-minus sign &#177; = ± &plusmn; = ±
superscript 2 &#178; = ² &sup2; = ²
superscript 3 &#179; = ³ &sup3; = ³
spacing acute &#180; = ´ &acute; = ´
micro sign &#181; = µ &micro; = µ
paragraph sign &#182; = ¶ &para; = ¶
middle dot &#183; = · &middot; = ·
spacing cedilla &#184; = ¸ &cedil; = ¸
superscript 1 &#185; = ¹ &sup1; = ¹
masculine ordinal indicator &#186; = º &ordm; = º
angle quotation mark, right &#187; = » &raquo; = »
fraction 1/4 &#188; = ¼ &frac14; = ¼
fraction 1/2 &#189; = ½ &frac12; = ½
fraction 3/4 &#190; = ¾ &frac34; = ¾
inverted question mark &#191; = ¿ &iquest; = ¿
capital A, grave accent &#192; = À &Agrave; = À
capital A, acute accent &#193; = Á &Agrave; = À
capital A, circumflex accent &#194; = Â &Acirc; = Â
capital A, tilde &#195; = Ã &Atilde; = Ã
capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark &#196; = Ä &Auml; = Ä
capital A, ring &#197; = Å &Aring; = Å
capital AE diphthong (ligature) &#198; = Æ &AElig; = Æ
capital C, cedilla &#199; = Ç &Ccedil; = Ç
capital E, grave accent &#200; = È &Egrave; = È
capital E, acute accent &#201; = É &Eacute; = É
capital E, circumflex accent &#202; = Ê &Ecirc; = Ê
capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark &#203; = Ë &Euml; = Ë
capital I, grave accent &#204; = Ì &Igrave; = Ì
capital I, acute accent &#205; = Í &Iacute; = Í
capital I, circumflex accent &#206; = Î &Icirc; = Î
capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark &#207; = Ï &Iuml; = Ï
capital Eth, Icelandic &#208; = Ð &ETH; = Ð
capital N, tilde &#209; = Ñ &Ntilde; = Ñ
capital O, grave accent &#210; = Ò &Ograve; = Ò
capital O, acute accent &#211; = Ó &Oacute; = Ó
capital O, circumflex accent &#212; = Ô &Ocirc; = Ô
capital O, tilde &#213; = Õ &Otilde; = Õ
capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark &#214; = Ö &Ouml; = Ö
multiplication sign &#215; = × &times; = ×
capital O, slash &#216; = Ø &Oslash; = Ø
capital U, grave accent &#217; = Ù &Ugrave; = Ù
capital U, acute accent &#218; = Ú &Uacute; = Ú
capital U, circumflex accent &#219; = Û &Ucirc; = Û
capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark &#220; = Ü &Uuml; = Ü
capital Y, acute accent &#221; = Ý &Yacute; = Ý
capital THORN, Icelandic &#222; = Þ &THORN; = Þ
small sharp s, German (sz ligature) &#223; = ß &szlig; = ß
small a, grave accent &#224; = à &agrave; = à
small a, acute accent &#225; = á &aacute; = á
small a, circumflex accent &#226; = â &acirc; = â
small a, tilde &#227; = ã &atilde; = ã
small a, dieresis or umlaut mark &#228; = ä &auml; = ä
small a, ring &#229; = å &aring; = å
small ae diphthong (ligature) &#230; = æ &aelig; = æ
small c, cedilla &#231; = ç &ccedil; = ç
small e, grave accent &#232; = è &egrave; = è
small e, acute accent &#233; = é &eacute; = é
small e, circumflex accent &#234; = ê &ecirc; = ê
small e, dieresis or umlaut mark &#235; = ë &euml; = ë
small i, grave accent &#236; = ì &igrave; = ì
small i, acute accent &#237; = í &iacute; = í
small i, circumflex accent &#238; = î &icirc; = î
small i, dieresis or umlaut mark &#239; = ï &iuml; = ï
small eth, Icelandic &#240; = ð &eth; = ð
small n, tilde &#241; = ñ &ntilde; = ñ
small o, grave accent &#242; = ò &ograve; = ò
small o, acute accent &#243; = ó &oacute; = ó
small o, circumflex accent &#244; = ô &ocirc; = ô
small o, tilde &#245; = õ &otilde; = õ
small o, dieresis or umlaut mark &#246; = ö &ouml; = ö
division sign &#247; = ÷ &divide; = ÷
small o, slash &#248; = ø &oslash; = ø
small u, grave accent &#249; = ù &ugrave; = ù
small u, acute accent &#250; = ú &uacute; = ú
small u, circumflex accent &#251; = û &ucirc; = û
small u, dieresis or umlaut mark &#252; = ü &uuml; = ü
small y, acute accent &#253; = ý &yacute; = ý
small thorn, Icelandic &#254; = þ &thorn; = þ
small y, dieresis or umlaut mark &#255; = ÿ &yuml; = ÿ


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Last revision: 14th August 1996